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1) "Phthalates are man-made chemicals found in personal care and other
2) Phthalates can alter human male reproductive development.
3) Phthalate exposure is widespread in infants.
4) Infant exposure to lotions, powders, and shampoos are significantly
associated with increased urinary concentrations of phthalates, and associations
increased with the number of products used.
5) Young infants are more vulnerable to developmental and reproductive toxicity
of phthalates because their immature metabolic system capability and because of
increased exposure dosage per unit body surface area.
6) Phthalates are synthetic, man-made chemicals that have toxic effects to the
developing endocrine and reproductive systems.
7) Phthalates are used in the manufacturing of a wide variety of industrial and
common household products.
8) Phthalate chemicals are found in plastic products such as children's toys,
lubricants, infant care products, chemical stabilizers in cosmetics, personal care
products, and polyvinyl chloride tubing.
9) "Phthalates are not chemically bound to these products and are therefore
continuously released into the air or through leaching into liquids, leading to
exposure through ingestion, dermal transfer, and inhalation."
10) "Children are uniquely vulnerable to phthalate exposures given their hand-tomouth
behaviors, floor play, and developing nervous and reproductive systems."
11) Phthalates are associated with sperm DNA damage in male adults and has
widespread effects on endocrine and reproductive systems.
12) Phthalate exposure through breast milk is associated with abnormal
reproductive hormone levels in 3-month-old infants, "suggesting that early human
exposures may have an adverse impact on endocrine homeostasis."
13) "Phthalates have also been found in food products and are thought to be
contaminants that enter the food supply during processing and packaging."
14) Mothers' use of baby lotion was associated with an 80% increase in phthalate
15) Infant powder use was associated with a 60% increase in infant urine
16) Infant shampoo use was associated with a 40% increase in infant urine
17) Mothers' use of infant lotion, infant powder, and shampoo was significantly
associated with higher phthalate metabolite urinary concentrations.
18) This study shows that dermal exposure is an important route of exposure for
some phthalates, particularly for young infants.
19) Phthalate exposures come from multiple sources, including plastics, personal
care products, and household products, and that multiple exposure routes may be
20) Oral ingestion of phthalates occurs through food, medicines, and indirect dust
21) Infants are exposed to phthalates through oral ingestion of breast
milk/formula, and dermal exposure to specific infant care products.
22) "In the United States, there is no requirement that products be labeled as to
their phthalate content. Parents may not be able to make informed choices until
manufacturers are required to list phthalate contents of products."
23) These authors "recommend limiting amount of infant care products used and
not to apply lotions or powders unless indicated for a medical reason."
24) "Phthalate toxicity is of increasing importance in the scientific and public